Frankel, J. L., D. W. Scott, et al. (2008). "Gross and cytological characteristics of normal feline anal-sac secretions." Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 10(4): 319-323.
Feline anal sac disorders are uncommon, and are classified as impaction, inflammation, infection, abscess, or neoplasia. Anal-sac secretion is composed of many elements, such as desquamated keratinocytes, material from sebaceous and apocrine glands, proteins, and lipids, as well as bacteria and yeasts. Cytological examination has been recommended for the diagnosis of anal sac disorders in cats, but the cytological findings from anal sacs in either normal cats or cats with anal sac diseases have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the cytology of clinically normal feline anal sac secretions and to quantify the numbers of organisms and cells present, and to determine whether there is an association between age or gross color and/or consistency of a secretion and the number of cells and/or organisms. The researchers discovered that the normal feline anal sac secretion is highly variable in gross appearance and cytological composition among cats.
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Parry, N. M. (2006). "Anal sac gland carcinoma in a cat." Vet Pathol 43(6): 1008-9.
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